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Ultra Centrifugal Mill ZM 200

Application Reports / Magazine Articles (43)

Toxic substances in our daily life
Plastic is an inherent part of our everyday lives; it is used in a huge variety of things such as, for example, packaging, furniture, clothing or electronic devices. Though the utility of the material is undoubted, consumers are increasingly unsettled by recurring news about hazardous substances detected in plastics.
Substances such as plasticizers, which are not firmly bound in the material, are absorbed via the skin and can influence the hormonal balance. Plasticizers contained in food packaging, for example, penetrate into the food and thus into the human body when the food is eaten. Plasticizers in toys are a particularly serious problem; children tend to take toys into their mouths thus absorbing the dangerous chemicals.  Equally hazardous are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The family of PAH comprises more than 100 compounds most of which have been found to be carcinogenic.
Quality control of coal: The influence of sample preparation on elemental analysis results
The most common types of coal (lignite, bituminous and anthracite) are distinguished by their different chemical and physical properties. The calorific value of coal can be determined by analyzing its carbon content, for example with combustion analyzers. In addition, efficient management of the desulfurization plant requires control of the sulfur content. Compared to the large amount of coal a typical laboratory sample consists of - a 10 liter bucket or even more - the sample volume required for analysis is fairly low, only approx. 1 g. The standard DIN 51701 defines the sample amount to be tested as this relates to the particle size: The bigger the particles are, the more sample material is required.
Like all foodstuff, confectionery is subjected to strict quality controls. Parameters of interest are, for example, nutritional value, moisture or fat content, or the quantification of particular ingredients, such as vitamins or alkaloids. Typically, chromatographic methods like High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are used to analyze food samples. Most analytical methods only require a few milligram or gram of sample; the previous size reduction/homogenization process ensures that the small analysis sample is representative of the entire laboratory sample, thus allowing for reproducible results. Moreover, homogenized samples show a much better extraction behavior.
The effect of grinding tools on metal contamination
Reliable and accurate analysis results can only be guaranteed by reproducible sample preparation. This consists of transforming a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness. Retsch offers a comprehensive range of the most modern mills and crushers for coarse, fine and ultra-fine size reduction of almost any material. The product range also comprises a wide choice of grinding tools and accessories which helps to ensure contamination-free preparation of a great variety of sample materials.
The selection of the correct grinding tool depends on the sample material and the subsequent method of analysis. Different grinding tools have different characteristics, such as required energy input, hardness or wear-resistance.
Sample Preparation and Analysis of Arsenic in Rice
Considerable care must be taken when analyzing a sample like rice in order to achieve an accurate result. The major source of error when analyzing a bulk material comes not from the analytical measurement itself, but from the sample handling, i.e., sampling, sample division, grinding, digestion, etc.
Renewable energies on the rise
Sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials with laboratory mills

Thanks to the increasing usage of biomass as a source of energy, the analysis of these materials in the context of R&D and quality control gains importance, too. Due to the complex properties of plant materials, adequate sample preparation can be rather a challenge.
Down to the bone
Use of laboratory grinders for size reduction of human bones and bioceramics

Bone implants and substances for bone regeneration are used in surgery to replace degenerated bone material by implants or to “re-build” it with specific substances. The material used in implants varies from autogeneic (supplied by the patient) through allogeneic (supplied by a donor) bones to replacement materials such as hydroxylapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Bovine bones and corals are used in conjunction with synthetically produced foamed materials to form a basis for the regeneration of bone substance. Various RETSCH mills are suitable for the preliminary and fine grinding of human bones as well as bioceramic materials.
Sample Preparation in the Pharmaceutical Industry
In the analysis of solid material, the popular adage that “bigger is better” certainly does not apply. The goal is to produce particles that are sufficiently small to satisfy the requirements of the analysis while ensuring that the final sample accurately represents the original material. The “particles” of interest to the analyst generally range from 10 µm to 2mm. Additionally there are many application, where even finer sizes are needed. One example are active ingredients, where it is necessary to grind in the submicron range. Finally for DNA or RNA extraction mechanical cell lysis is well-established. Materials differ widely in their composition and physical properties. Hence, there are many different grinding principles that can be applied, and this, together with other variables such as initial feed or “lump” size, fineness needed and amount of sample available, results in a wide range of models available to the researcher.
As fine as necessary
A variety of methods can be used to analyze solid materials. What they all have in common is the necessity to use a representative, homogeneous analysis sample which needs to have a particular fineness, depending on the analytical method used. The size reduction and homogenization of solids is usually carried out with laboratory crushers and grinders.
Representative Sample Preparation to Environmental Analysis
The prevention of environmental pollution is a prime issue of today’s industrialized societies. Important instruments in this context are regular checks using the latest analytical methods. Beside air and water analysis the focus is also on environmental remediation and declaration analyses as well as examination of soils, construction waste, sediments, secondary fuels and many more. Prevention and ecological recycling and disposal are the key words of a modern environmental policy. If the production of waste cannot be prevented, the primary objective is its material or energetic recycling. Residuals which cannot be recycled have to be disposed of in an ecologically friendly way.
Representative Analysis Results Require Adequate Sample Preparation
A faultless and comparable analysis is closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful analysis results. Rotating dividers and rotary tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis. Correct sample handling consequently minimizes the probability of a production stop due to incorrect analysis results. Thus correct sample handling is the key to effective quality control.
Quality control of cement
Quality control is an important aspect of cement production. Sample preparation is an essential part of it, because only a representative and reproducible processing of the sample material ensures reliable and meaningful analysis results. RETSCH offers a range of instruments for dividing, crushing, grinding and sizing all materials which are involved in the production process of cement, including secondary fuels. To ensure the right choice of instrument for the right sample material, Retsch offers free-of-charge sample testing in application laboratories all over the world.
Elemental analysers based on combustion technology are a useful addition to XRF analysis for the quality control of cement and related products, ensuring fast, precise and reliable determination of carbon and sulphur. With its offering of analyzers using resistance or induction furnaces or both, ELTRA covers a wide range of applications for C and S determination in organic and inorganic samples. The product range is ideally suited to the variety of analytical applications in a cement plant.
Scrap turned into raw materials: End-of-life vehicles re-used
The EU directive 2000/53/EG stipulates that as of 2015 95 % of the weight of a car that has reached the end of its life span have to be recycled. The work of ARN is strongly focused on this objective. Together with partner companies they make sure that old cars are processed in an environmentally compliant way. The recycling chain begins with the companies that dismantle the car and remove raw materials and liquids. Waste management companies collect these materials and deliver them to the processing companies who reuse the materials in accordance with high production standards.
Secondary fuels – Energy for the cement industry
Due to decreasing resources and increasing market prices for primary fuels like oil, gas or coal, it is paramount for the cement industry to search for alternative energy sources. With regard to the CO2 emissions trading, a switch to energy sources which have a neutral CO2 balance can be rather profitable. Usually, these are non-fossil fuels. Industries with high energy consumption have made increasing use of alternative fuels during the last years. Accordingly, the use of so called secondary fuels (also waste derived fuels/wdf or refuse derived fuels/rdf) has gained importance. These are mostly combustible fractions of domestic or industrial waste which cannot be recycled.
Plastic - one material with many variations
Thanks to the almost unlimited variety of plastics, their fields of application are huge. Abbreviations such as PE, PET, PC, PP , PBT or ABS not only describe a simple material but a whole class of products with many different characteristics. Depending on the intended use, plastic needs to be, for example, impact-resistant, breakproof, heat-resistant or solvent-resistant.
Sample prep and analysis of secondary fuels
With ever increasing socio-economic and geo-political demands, the use of secondary fuels in cement manufacture is a well-established practice for reducing both costs and CO2 emissions. The depletion of resources, combined with an increasing demand for primary fuels such as oil, gas or coal, make it paramount for energy consuming industries to search for alternative energy sources.
Detection of Mycotoxins in Nuts
Preliminary and fine size reduction
Toxic analyses of biological samples
Cryogenic grinding facilitates the preparation of animal samples
Fat Analysis in Food and Feed
Size reduction of samples with a high fat content
Traces of Heavy Metals in Toys
From Size Reduction to Analysis
Milling of Samples in a Fertilizer Laboratory
The fertilizer laboratory of the Division of Regulatory Services at the University of Kentucky uses the Retsch ZM 200 ultra centrifugal mill for milling fertilizer samples.
Sick with Dolls
Traces of Heavy Metals in Toys
Cement - representative sample preparation is important
To produce high-quality cement, the mineralogical and chemical composition of raw materials as well as intermediate and finished products has to be determined. At each stage of the production, samples have to be taken, processed and analysed to ensure quality control without gaps. Retsch offers a range of instruments that are used for sample preparation during the complete production process, from the quarrying of the raw materials to the final product. The typical sample preparation process involves preliminary size reduction, sample division and fine size reduction before the sample can be submitted to further analyses....
Tracking down hazardous substances (RoHS/WEEE)
Preparing electronic waste for obtaining representative analytical samples.
A solution for converting an electrical appliance into a meaningful analytical sample is described using a remote-controlled toy car as an example.
Size reduction within the context of sample preparation
In general “size reduction” is taken to mean the disintegration of solid substances by mechanical forces without altering their state.
Sample Preparation of Electronic Scrap in the Context of RoHS and WEEE
Since August 2004 new EU directives for the disposal of used electrical and electronic appliances as well as the restricted use of certain hazardous substances in these devices have become effective.
Sample Preparation of Solid Materials for the XRF-analysis
X-Ray fluorescence is one of the most versatile methods to determine elements in a sample. The material is exposed to x-rays that cause each element to emit its own unique fluorescent x-ray. The subsequent analysis of the results is based on comparisons to standard samples with given chemical composition.
Bigger is not Better
There is a trend towards smaller samples that have more controlled particle size and yet remain representative of the material being analyzed.
Sample Preparation of Plastics for X-Ray-Fluorescence Analysis
The elemental analysis of plastics has become more and more important. EC directive 91/338/EWG regulates the ban of cadmium in PVC, EC directive 94/62/EC defines limits for cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury in packing materials and EC directive 2000/53/EC defines limits for the same elements in end-of-life vehicles. This has created a strong need for a rapid and reliable testing method.
Cryogenic Preparation of Sample Materials
Within the context of sample preparation, size reduction plays an important role as it has a substantial influence on the results of the subsequent analysis. If the particles are too coarse or non-homogeneous the results of the analysis may turn out to be incorrect, especially if there is only a very small amount of sample material which represents the total amount.
Sample preparation of electronic scrap with SM 2000 and ZM 200
RETSCH mills in the context of RoHS and WEEE
Reliable sample preparation in food technology
An efficient sample preparation procedure for rapid, reliable and reproducible analytical results is becoming increasingly important today. Ever more stringent requirements are being set both in research and production, e.g. for product monitoring and quality control.
Analysis of cadmium in plastics
In recent years, mass media have focused on the topics of the environment and environmental conservation. With the advancement in scientific technology, resource development has progressed.
The Representative Sample Preparation of Waste
Now that a certain environmental awareness has developed in the population over the past few years, our efforts are geared not only to avoiding waste, but also to reducing the mountains of waste which still arise by means of raw material recovery and the reintroduction of secondary raw materials into the industrial cycle.
Komplexe Lebensmittelproben schnell und reproduzierbar zerkleinern
Nahrungsmittel treten in sehr unterschiedlichen Formen und Konsistenzen auf und sind i.d.R. inhomogen. Für die Analytik z.B. zur Bestimmung von Nährwerten oder zum Auffinden von Schadstoffen werden jedoch homogene und repräsentative Proben benötigt, um aussagekräftige und reproduzierbare Ergebnisse zu erhalten. Im Rahmen der Probenvorbereitung müssen die oft sehr komplexen Proben homogenisiert und auf eine hinreichende Partikelgröße zerkleinert werden. Ideale Helfer bei diesem wichtigen Schritt sind Labormühlen unterschiedlicher Bauart, wie sie von RETSCH angeboten werden.
Repräsentative Probenvorbereitung im Umweltlabor
Die Vermeidung von Umweltverschmutzung ist eines der zentralen Themen in den Industriegesellschaften des 21. Jahrhunderts. Eines der wichtigsten Instrumente in diesem Zusammenhang ist die regelmäßige Kontrolle mit modernen analytischen Methoden. Neben Luft- und Wasseranalytik stehen Altlastensanierungen und Deklarationsanalysen ebenso im Fokus wie die Analytik von Boden, Bauschutt, Sedimenten, Altholz, Sekundärbrennstoffen u.v.m.. Für nahezu sämtliche chemische und physikalische Analysenmethoden ist es notwendig, die Analysenprobe in einem möglichst hohen Grad zu homogenisieren und sie auf eine definierte Feinheit zu zerkleinern. Hierbei erstreckt sich die notwendige Probenvorbereitung auf alle Proben der unterschiedlichen Matrizes. Die Probenvorbereitung hat somit neben der Probenahme einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf das Analysenendergebnis, denn: Probenvorbereitungsfehler können das Endergebnis um mehr als 50% beeinflussen!
Schnell und schonend zerkleinern
In zahlreichen Labors werden täglich viele unterschiedliche Probenmaterialien aufbereitet. Für die Zerkleinerung von Feststoffproben auf Analysenfeinheit wird eine Mühle benötigt, die nicht nur vielseitig einsetzbar und leicht zu reinigen ist, sondern die auch eine reproduzierbare Probenvorbereitung – und damit zuverlässige Analysenergebnisse - garantiert.
Mit der Ultra-Zentrifugalmühle ZM 200 bietet RETSCH eine Rotormühle an, die nicht nur sehr schnell, sondern auch äußerst materialschonend zerkleinert und, dank einer umfangreichen Zubehörpalette, universell einsetzbar ist. Mit ihrem kraftvollen Powerdrive-Antrieb vermahlt die ZM 200 weiche bis mittelharte und faserige Materialien extrem schnell auf Endfeinheiten bis unter 100 µm und steigert so den Probendurchsatz im Labor.
Probenvorbereitung von Böden
Bestimmung von anorganischen Inhaltsstoffen in Bodenproben

In Industrienationen mit hoher Besiedlungsdichte und einem begrenzten Angebot an Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten unterliegt die Nutzung von Gebäuden und Flächen einem dauerhaften Wandel. Daher sind Bodenuntersuchungen für Investoren, Behörden und Privatpersonen unumgänglich. Umweltanalytische Untersuchungen bilden die Basis, um Gefährdungen aufzuzeigen und damit Menschen und eingesetztes Kapital zu schützen. Bei SGS Institut Fresenius in Herten werden bis zu 400 Bodenproben am Tag aufgearbeitet und analysiert. Hierbei wird sehr genau darauf geachtet, dass geltende Normen und Verordnungen eingehalten werden. In Deutschland gilt die BbodSchV, wobei die Analytik auch auf die Vorschriften anderer Länder angepasst wird.
Von der Probe zum Pressling – Probenvorbereitung von Feststoffen für die Röntgenfluoreszenz
Aufgrund der Einfachheit der eigentlichen RFA-Messung wird häufig der Aspekt der optimalen Probenvorbereitung übersehen, was sich dann in mangelnder Reproduzierbarkeit bis hin zu falschen Ergebnissen auswirken kann.
Zerkleinern von Proben in einem Düngemittellabor
Für die genaue und reproduzierbare Analyse von Düngernährstoff, Spurennährstoffen und Spurenmineralien ist das vorherige Zerkleinern der Probe unverzichtbar. Das Düngerlabor der Division of Regulatory Services der University of Kentucky verwendet zum Homogenisieren der Proben die Ultra-Zentrifugalmühle ZM 200 von Retsch.
Los especial del pigmento
Debido a la ilimitada variedad de colores y texturas que ofrencen los recubrimientos en polvo; muchos de los nuevos recubrimientosde aplicación especifica se crean en el laboratorio en pequeñas cantidades que luego se le envían al cliente para su aplicación y aprobación.
Molienda ultrarrápida y ultrafina
El nuevo molino ultracentrífugo ZM 200 de RETSCH es un molino de rotor no sólo extremadamente rápido y cuidadoso con el material molido, sino también de uso universal gracias a su amplia gama de accesorios.

Customer Magazine "the sample" (23)

No. 43
Reproducible sample preparation for food testing
No. 37
NEW DIMENSIONS in sample preparation and particle analysis

No. 36
The Art of Milling - Contemporary Milling Technologies
No. 33
No. 32
SAMPLE PREPARATION for Instrumental Analysis
No. 31
Grand Prix Season 2008 & New RETSCH Instruments
No. 30
Mills and Particle Analyzers for Environmental Analysis
No. 28
Think big but grind fine!
No. 27
Sample Preparation in Biology and Medical Science
No. 26
CAMSIZER - Optical Particle Size and Shape Analysis
Special Edition
Product Highlights
No. 25
Retsch presents the new Ultra-Centrifugal Mill ZM 200
No. 24
Anniversary issue of the RETSCH customer magazine 10 years "the sample"
No. 23
New Sieve Shakers AS 300 and AS 400 / Biology and Medicines
No. 21
Sample preparation for instrumental analysis
No. 20
Pharmaceutical Industry And Medicine
No. 17
Environmental Technology
No. 15
Preparation and testing of glass an ceramics
No. 14
Preparation and analysis of foodstuffs
No. 12
Particle analysis by digital image processing
No. 09
From jelly babies to car tyres...
the new Ultra-Centrifugal Mill ZM 100

No. 04
Focus: Sieving
No. 01
RETSCH: Worldwide on the spot

Expert Guides (1)

  • Expert Guide Milling

    The Expert Guide "The Art of Milling" is a new marketing tool which will help you at your sales activities. This compendium of 56 pages provides detailed information on our business segment "Milling" - necessary backgroud for the consultation of customers.

Press releases (2)

  • Cyclone Mills

  • Versatile Ultra Centrifugal Mill with New Cyclone

    RETSCH’s powerful and versatile ZM 200 offers the ultimate in performance and operating comfort. It is used for the rapid size reduction of soft to medium-hard and fibrous materials down to 40 microns. Because of the efficient size reduction technique and the comprehensive range of accessories the ZM 200 ensures the gentle preparation of analytical samples in a very short time.
    For applications which require an optimum air throughput (e. g. heat sensitive materials) or if larger sample volumes need to be processed, the use of a cyclone is recommended. RETSCH offers a re-designed cyclone with improved functionalities for collector volumes from 250 ml to 5 liters which adds to the ZM 200’s great flexibility.
    Thanks to the wide range of accessories with different rotors, ring sieves and collectors, the ZM 200 can be easily adapted to suit a wide range of applications such as, for example, heavy-metal-free grinding, size reduction of abrasive materials or processing small volumes up to 20 ml.

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