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Ultra Centrifugal Mill ZM 200

Application Reports / Magazine Articles (38)

Renewable energies on the rise
Sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials with laboratory mills

Thanks to the increasing usage of biomass as a source of energy, the analysis of these materials in the context of R&D and quality control gains importance, too. Due to the complex properties of plant materials, adequate sample preparation can be rather a challenge.
As fine as necessary
A variety of methods can be used to analyze solid materials. What they all have in common is the necessity to use a representative, homogeneous analysis sample which needs to have a particular fineness, depending on the analytical method used. The size reduction and homogenization of solids is usually carried out with laboratory crushers and grinders.
Detection of Mycotoxins in Nuts
Preliminary and fine size reduction
Secondary fuels – Energy for the cement industry
Due to decreasing resources and increasing market prices for primary fuels like oil, gas or coal, it is paramount for the cement industry to search for alternative energy sources. With regard to the CO2 emissions trading, a switch to energy sources which have a neutral CO2 balance can be rather profitable. Usually, these are non-fossil fuels. Industries with high energy consumption have made increasing use of alternative fuels during the last years. Accordingly, the use of so called secondary fuels (also waste derived fuels/wdf or refuse derived fuels/rdf) has gained importance. These are mostly combustible fractions of domestic or industrial waste which cannot be recycled.
Toxic analyses of biological samples
Cryogenic grinding facilitates the preparation of animal samples
Fat Analysis in Food and Feed
Size reduction of samples with a high fat content
Traces of Heavy Metals in Toys
From Size Reduction to Analysis
Los especial del pigmento
Debido a la ilimitada variedad de colores y texturas que ofrencen los recubrimientos en polvo; muchos de los nuevos recubrimientosde aplicación especifica se crean en el laboratorio en pequeñas cantidades que luego se le envían al cliente para su aplicación y aprobación.
Molienda ultrarrápida y ultrafina
El nuevo molino ultracentrífugo ZM 200 de RETSCH es un molino de rotor no sólo extremadamente rápido y cuidadoso con el material molido, sino también de uso universal gracias a su amplia gama de accesorios.
Size reduction within the context of sample preparation
In general “size reduction” is taken to mean the disintegration of solid substances by mechanical forces without altering their state.
Sick with Dolls
Traces of Heavy Metals in Toys
Sample Preparation and Analysis of Arsenic in Rice
Considerable care must be taken when analyzing a sample like rice in order to achieve an accurate result. The major source of error when analyzing a bulk material comes not from the analytical measurement itself, but from the sample handling, i.e., sampling, sample division, grinding, digestion, etc.
Scrap turned into raw materials: End-of-life vehicles re-used
The EU directive 2000/53/EG stipulates that as of 2015 95 % of the weight of a car that has reached the end of its life span have to be recycled. The work of ARN is strongly focused on this objective. Together with partner companies they make sure that old cars are processed in an environmentally compliant way. The recycling chain begins with the companies that dismantle the car and remove raw materials and liquids. Waste management companies collect these materials and deliver them to the processing companies who reuse the materials in accordance with high production standards.
Repräsentative Probenvorbereitung im Umweltlabor
Die Vermeidung von Umweltverschmutzung ist eines der zentralen Themen in den Industriegesellschaften des 21. Jahrhunderts. Eines der wichtigsten Instrumente in diesem Zusammenhang ist die regelmäßige Kontrolle mit modernen analytischen Methoden. Neben Luft- und Wasseranalytik stehen Altlastensanierungen und Deklarationsanalysen ebenso im Fokus wie die Analytik von Boden, Bauschutt, Sedimenten, Altholz, Sekundärbrennstoffen u.v.m.. Für nahezu sämtliche chemische und physikalische Analysenmethoden ist es notwendig, die Analysenprobe in einem möglichst hohen Grad zu homogenisieren und sie auf eine definierte Feinheit zu zerkleinern. Hierbei erstreckt sich die notwendige Probenvorbereitung auf alle Proben der unterschiedlichen Matrizes. Die Probenvorbereitung hat somit neben der Probenahme einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf das Analysenendergebnis, denn: Probenvorbereitungsfehler können das Endergebnis um mehr als 50% beeinflussen!
The effect of grinding tools on metal contamination
Reliable and accurate analysis results can only be guaranteed by reproducible sample preparation. This consists of transforming a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness. Retsch offers a comprehensive range of the most modern mills and crushers for coarse, fine and ultra-fine size reduction of almost any material. The product range also comprises a wide choice of grinding tools and accessories which helps to ensure contamination-free preparation of a great variety of sample materials.
The selection of the correct grinding tool depends on the sample material and the subsequent method of analysis. Different grinding tools have different characteristics, such as required energy input, hardness or wear-resistance.
Representative Analysis Results Require Adequate Sample Preparation
A faultless and comparable analysis is closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful analysis results. Rotating dividers and rotary tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis. Correct sample handling consequently minimizes the probability of a production stop due to incorrect analysis results. Thus correct sample handling is the key to effective quality control.
Plastic - one material with many variations
Thanks to the almost unlimited variety of plastics, their fields of application are huge. Abbreviations such as PE, PET, PC, PP , PBT or ABS not only describe a simple material but a whole class of products with many different characteristics. Depending on the intended use, plastic needs to be, for example, impact-resistant, breakproof, heat-resistant or solvent-resistant.
Schnell und schonend zerkleinern
In zahlreichen Labors werden täglich viele unterschiedliche Probenmaterialien aufbereitet. Für die Zerkleinerung von Feststoffproben auf Analysenfeinheit wird eine Mühle benötigt, die nicht nur vielseitig einsetzbar und leicht zu reinigen ist, sondern die auch eine reproduzierbare Probenvorbereitung – und damit zuverlässige Analysenergebnisse - garantiert.
Mit der Ultra-Zentrifugalmühle ZM 200 bietet RETSCH eine Rotormühle an, die nicht nur sehr schnell, sondern auch äußerst materialschonend zerkleinert und, dank einer umfangreichen Zubehörpalette, universell einsetzbar ist. Mit ihrem kraftvollen Powerdrive-Antrieb vermahlt die ZM 200 weiche bis mittelharte und faserige Materialien extrem schnell auf Endfeinheiten bis unter 100 µm und steigert so den Probendurchsatz im Labor.
Probenvorbereitung von Böden
Bestimmung von anorganischen Inhaltsstoffen in Bodenproben

In Industrienationen mit hoher Besiedlungsdichte und einem begrenzten Angebot an Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten unterliegt die Nutzung von Gebäuden und Flächen einem dauerhaften Wandel. Daher sind Bodenuntersuchungen für Investoren, Behörden und Privatpersonen unumgänglich. Umweltanalytische Untersuchungen bilden die Basis, um Gefährdungen aufzuzeigen und damit Menschen und eingesetztes Kapital zu schützen. Bei SGS Institut Fresenius in Herten werden bis zu 400 Bodenproben am Tag aufgearbeitet und analysiert. Hierbei wird sehr genau darauf geachtet, dass geltende Normen und Verordnungen eingehalten werden. In Deutschland gilt die BbodSchV, wobei die Analytik auch auf die Vorschriften anderer Länder angepasst wird.
Von der Probe zum Pressling – Probenvorbereitung von Feststoffen für die Röntgenfluoreszenz
Aufgrund der Einfachheit der eigentlichen RFA-Messung wird häufig der Aspekt der optimalen Probenvorbereitung übersehen, was sich dann in mangelnder Reproduzierbarkeit bis hin zu falschen Ergebnissen auswirken kann.
Tracking down hazardous substances (RoHS/WEEE)
Preparing electronic waste for obtaining representative analytical samples.
A solution for converting an electrical appliance into a meaningful analytical sample is described using a remote-controlled toy car as an example.
Sample preparation of electronic scrap with SM 2000 and ZM 200
RETSCH mills in the context of RoHS and WEEE
Cryogenic Preparation of Sample Materials
Within the context of sample preparation, size reduction plays an important role as it has a substantial influence on the results of the subsequent analysis. If the particles are too coarse or non-homogeneous the results of the analysis may turn out to be incorrect, especially if there is only a very small amount of sample material which represents the total amount.
The preparation of samples of solid substances for spectroscopic analysis
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is one of the most versatile multi-element methods of chemical analysis. The technique is based on excitation of fluorescent radiation from a sample by bombarding it with high energy X-ray quanta and subsequent study of the characteristic X-ray radiation emitted by its elements.
Zerkleinern von Proben in einem Düngemittellabor
Für die genaue und reproduzierbare Analyse von Düngernährstoff, Spurennährstoffen und Spurenmineralien ist das vorherige Zerkleinern der Probe unverzichtbar. Das Düngerlabor der Division of Regulatory Services der University of Kentucky verwendet zum Homogenisieren der Proben die Ultra-Zentrifugalmühle ZM 200 von Retsch.
Reliable sample preparation in food technology
An efficient sample preparation procedure for rapid, reliable and reproducible analytical results is becoming increasingly important today. Ever more stringent requirements are being set both in research and production, e.g. for product monitoring and quality control.
The Representative Sample Preparation of Waste
Now that a certain environmental awareness has developed in the population over the past few years, our efforts are geared not only to avoiding waste, but also to reducing the mountains of waste which still arise by means of raw material recovery and the reintroduction of secondary raw materials into the industrial cycle.
Down to the bone
Use of laboratory grinders for size reduction of human bones and bioceramics

Bone implants and substances for bone regeneration are used in surgery to replace degenerated bone material by implants or to “re-build” it with specific substances. The material used in implants varies from autogeneic (supplied by the patient) through allogeneic (supplied by a donor) bones to replacement materials such as hydroxylapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Bovine bones and corals are used in conjunction with synthetically produced foamed materials to form a basis for the regeneration of bone substance. Various RETSCH mills are suitable for the preliminary and fine grinding of human bones as well as bioceramic materials.
Sample Preparation in the Pharmaceutical Industry
In the analysis of solid material, the popular adage that “bigger is better” certainly does not apply. The goal is to produce particles that are sufficiently small to satisfy the requirements of the analysis while ensuring that the final sample accurately represents the original material. The “particles” of interest to the analyst generally range from 10 µm to 2mm. Additionally there are many application, where even finer sizes are needed. One example are active ingredients, where it is necessary to grind in the submicron range. Finally for DNA or RNA extraction mechanical cell lysis is well-established. Materials differ widely in their composition and physical properties. Hence, there are many different grinding principles that can be applied, and this, together with other variables such as initial feed or “lump” size, fineness needed and amount of sample available, results in a wide range of models available to the researcher.
Representative Sample Preparation to Environmental Analysis
The prevention of environmental pollution is a prime issue of today’s industrialized societies. Important instruments in this context are regular checks using the latest analytical methods. Beside air and water analysis the focus is also on environmental remediation and declaration analyses as well as examination of soils, construction waste, sediments, secondary fuels and many more. Prevention and ecological recycling and disposal are the key words of a modern environmental policy. If the production of waste cannot be prevented, the primary objective is its material or energetic recycling. Residuals which cannot be recycled have to be disposed of in an ecologically friendly way.
Quality control of cement
Quality control is an important aspect of cement production. Sample preparation is an essential part of it, because only a representative and reproducible processing of the sample material ensures reliable and meaningful analysis results. RETSCH offers a range of instruments for dividing, crushing, grinding and sizing all materials which are involved in the production process of cement, including secondary fuels. To ensure the right choice of instrument for the right sample material, Retsch offers free-of-charge sample testing in application laboratories all over the world.
Elemental analysers based on combustion technology are a useful addition to XRF analysis for the quality control of cement and related products, ensuring fast, precise and reliable determination of carbon and sulphur. With its offering of analyzers using resistance or induction furnaces or both, ELTRA covers a wide range of applications for C and S determination in organic and inorganic samples. The product range is ideally suited to the variety of analytical applications in a cement plant.
Milling of Samples in a Fertilizer Laboratory
The fertilizer laboratory of the Division of Regulatory Services at the University of Kentucky uses the Retsch ZM 200 ultra centrifugal mill for milling fertilizer samples.
Cement - representative sample preparation is important
To produce high-quality cement, the mineralogical and chemical composition of raw materials as well as intermediate and finished products has to be determined. At each stage of the production, samples have to be taken, processed and analysed to ensure quality control without gaps. Retsch offers a range of instruments that are used for sample preparation during the complete production process, from the quarrying of the raw materials to the final product. The typical sample preparation process involves preliminary size reduction, sample division and fine size reduction before the sample can be submitted to further analyses....
Sample Preparation of Electronic Scrap in the Context of RoHS and WEEE
Since August 2004 new EU directives for the disposal of used electrical and electronic appliances as well as the restricted use of certain hazardous substances in these devices have become effective.
Bigger is not Better
There is a trend towards smaller samples that have more controlled particle size and yet remain representative of the material being analyzed.
Sample Preparation of Plastics for X-Ray-Fluorescence Analysis
The elemental analysis of plastics has become more and more important. EC directive 91/338/EWG regulates the ban of cadmium in PVC, EC directive 94/62/EC defines limits for cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury in packing materials and EC directive 2000/53/EC defines limits for the same elements in end-of-life vehicles. This has created a strong need for a rapid and reliable testing method.
Analysis of cadmium in plastics
In recent years, mass media have focused on the topics of the environment and environmental conservation. With the advancement in scientific technology, resource development has progressed.

Customer Magazine "the sample" (22)

No. 32
SAMPLE PREPARATION for Instrumental Analysis
No. 36
The Art of Milling - Contemporary Milling Technologies
No. 37
NEW DIMENSIONS in sample preparation and particle analysis

No. 33
SAMPLE PREPARATION IN PRACTICE & NEW RETSCH INSTRUMENTS
No. 31
Grand Prix Season 2008 & New RETSCH Instruments
No. 30
Mills and Particle Analyzers for Environmental Analysis
No. 28
Think big but grind fine!
No. 27
Sample Preparation in Biology and Medical Science
No. 26
CAMSIZER - Optical Particle Size and Shape Analysis
Special Edition
Product Highlights
No. 25
Retsch presents the new Ultra-Centrifugal Mill ZM 200
No. 24
Anniversary issue of the RETSCH customer magazine 10 years "the sample"
No. 23
New Sieve Shakers AS 300 and AS 400 / Biology and Medicines
No. 21
Sample preparation for instrumental analysis
No. 20
Pharmaceutical Industry And Medicine
No. 17
Environmental Technology
No. 15
Preparation and testing of glass an ceramics
No. 14
Preparation and analysis of foodstuffs
No. 12
Particle analysis by digital image processing
No. 09
From jelly babies to car tyres...
the new Ultra-Centrifugal Mill ZM 100

No. 04
Focus: Sieving
No. 01
RETSCH: Worldwide on the spot

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